Code of ethics

At Ifergan Gallery we have a strict ethical code so that buying archaeology is safe for our clients. Prior to its acquisition, we ensure that the pieces comply with the international laws of protection of the historical and cultural heritage of UNESCO. We guarantee that none of them has been stolen from excavations, architectural monuments, public institutions or private properties.

All our pieces are delivered with their corresponding Export Certificate issued by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of the Government of Spain.

In addition, to ensure the maximum satisfaction of our customers we require museum quality level.

We guarantee that the pieces we offer are as they are seen in the photographs and correspond with their description.

Authenticity

Our pieces come entirely from the most renowned auction houses around the world such as Christie's, Bonhams or Pierre Bergé, as well as from the most prestigious international galleries. Therefore, the quality and authenticity of the pieces is guaranteed, providing each with its corresponding certificate of authenticity. In addition, we work with tools such as Thermoluminescence or Carbon 14 tests to certify their age.

Returns

At Ifergan Gallery we are concerned about the satisfaction of our customers. To guarantee it, the client may return the piece within fifteen calendar days of its reception.
In addition, all our shipments are made with the appropriate packaging that guarantees reception in optimal conditions. Packages are also sent with their corresponding accident insurance.

Byzantine bronze censer, 600 A.D.

This piece is a circular-shaped censer with the whole perimeter surrounded by a decorative band. It hangs by means of three bronze suspensions attached to a hook, which would allow it to be kept hanging in movement or in a static way to participate in some cult activity. The fact that the piece is made of bronze makes it a piece linked to worship or a ritual activity, since the censers for daily use were made of terracotta or ceramic.

Incense, gum or resin extracted from trees, was highly appreciated in ancient cultures, since in addition to purifying the environment and providing a good smell, it was intended for ritual use. It was thought that incense helped the initiated in their connection with the beyond, as well as to please the gods when prayers were performed.

The fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century resulted in the ruin of the ancient world. However, Christianity was the driving force behind the continuity and evolution of the West in the Middle Ages, albeit slowly. Paleochristian art served as a bridge between classical and Christian culture to create a new art. It is an art that lives in its beginnings hidden, in many occasions persecuted. The followers of the new religion stimulated the appearance and extension of another iconography. Although to represent the beliefs and stories of their faith they often resorted to pre-existing visual prototypes, there is no doubt that the spirit that animated the visual creations of Christianity was beginning to be very different from the old polytheism.

Large Roman-Herodian terracotta amphora for transport, 37 B.C.-70 A.D.

This large amphora consists of a globular body culminating in a cylindrical neck and is decorated with two small handles on the shoulders. Due to its large size it would be used to transport liquids or food.
The first and second centuries A.D. belong to the period known as High Imperial Rome, that is, the period of splendour of the Roman Empire. It is a flourishing period thanks to the arrival to power of Augustus, who promoted powerful changes in the Empire that had an impact on Roman art. During this period, the aesthetics of sculpture came from the Hellenistic world and, with respect to typologies, historical relief and portraits predominated, which sought to promote the most important characters or events.

Canaanite terracotta amphora for wine storage, Medium Bronze, 1850-1500 B.C.

The territory of Canaan was from 4000 BC the connection between East and West. It was inhabited by very diverse peoples, such as Amorites, Jebusites, Hyksos, Philistines, Phoenicians, Arameans and Hebrews, who eventually conquered the territory. From settlements like Jericho, Ugarit, Tyre or Damascus, the Canaanites were dedicated to trade with the neighboring lands of Mesopotamia or Egypt. More than one thousand two hundred kilometers could be crossed on foot by the Canaanite clans to reach their destinations. The routes ran from Mesopotamia to Egypt, where family groups loaded with goods for exchange would travel.

Amphorae are ceramic fusiform containers with two handles and a narrow neck generally, although in some cultures they have been developed in metal or other materials. They are usually finished with a point or even a long protruding tip that was used to nail them to the ground and keep them stable.

Normally they could contain a minimum of 25 to 30 litres, their shape being variable depending on whether they carried wine, oil, salting, cereals or other food.

Egyptian faience ushabti for “Padiusir”, Late Period, 26th dinasty, 646-343 B.C.

The ushabtis are small mummiform figures representing the deceased himself, whose name means “those who respond” because they would perform those works that were ordered by their lord in the afterlife The ushebtis arise in the Middle Empire, in the beginning were made of persea wood. Their rapid popularization caused them to start mass production, using other simpler techniques and less manuals to cover the demand. In some tombs you could find up to 365 for the day and 365 for the night, so that his lord, the deceased, did not lack help for all eternity. These ushebtis could be arranged in boxes or even one representing them all. These boxes became very common as they reinforced the magical power of the servants. The ancient Egyptians believed in the magic of sculptures and words, so for them these magical figures would accompany them to their eternal life and once there they would come to life and serve him faithfully. Its inscription reads: “May the Osiris of the priest of (the goddess) Smentet, Padiusir, and of the temple of Ptah-Un in Heracleopolis be illuminated! Born of Mrs. Irtbinat, just of voice (justified). He (refers to Padiusir) says: Oh! These ushebtis. If it is decreed (in the sense of: if required) The Osiris of the priest of Smentet, Padiusir; to do (all) the works that must be done in the Hereafter, I am here! You will say, to tear down obstacles, to cultivate fields, to irrigate riparian lands and to transport sand from East to West and vice versa, here I am! You will say.” This magnificent ushebti is consecrated to a priest of the goddess Smentet and the temple of Ptah in Heracleopolis, a great character, so his ushabti has a religious design very careful and poetic.

Egyptian faience ushabti for “Tius”, Late Period, 27th-30th dinasty, 525-341 B.C.

The ushabis are small mummified figures representing the deceased himself, whose name means “those who respond” since they would perform those jobs that were ordered by their lord in the afterlife

The ushabtis arise in the Middle Empire, at the beginning they were made in persea wood.  Its rapid popularization caused that they began to be made in series, by means of other simpler and less manual techniques that allowed to cover the demand. In some tombs you could find up to 365 for the day and 365 for the night, so that their lord, the deceased, would not lack help for all eternity. These ushabtis could be arranged in boxes or even one representing them all. These boxes became very common as they reinforced the magical power of the servants.

The ancient Egyptians believed in the magic of sculptures and words, that is why for them these magic figures would accompany them to their eternal life and once there they would come alive and serve them faithfully.

This blue faience ushabti carries his farming implements, beard and a tripartite wig. Its magnificent inscription reads: “May the Osiris (priest) of Tius be enlightened and justified. Born of Tayderek, justified. He says: Oh! ushebtis, if I am required. The Osiris of Tius, to do all the works that must be done in the hereafter, here I am!, you will say, to break down the obstacles, to cultivate the fields, to irrigate the riverside lands and to transport the sand from west to east and vice versa. Here I am! you will say.” This magnificent inscription, in which he speaks of the justified, an expression to refer to the dead, and even of his own mother, makes him a unique example.

Egyptian faience ushabti for “Tius”, Late Period, 27th-30th dinasty, 525-341 B.C.

The ushabis are small mummified figures representing the deceased himself, whose name means “those who respond” since they would perform those jobs that were ordered by their lord in the afterlife

The ushabtis arise in the Middle Empire, at the beginning they were made in persea wood.  Its rapid popularization caused that they began to be made in series, by means of other simpler and less manual techniques that allowed to cover the demand. In some tombs you could find up to 365 for the day and 365 for the night, so that their lord, the deceased, would not lack help for all eternity. These ushabtis could be arranged in boxes or even one representing them all. These boxes became very common as they reinforced the magical power of the servants.

The ancient Egyptians believed in the magic of sculptures and words, that is why for them these magic figures would accompany them to their eternal life and once there they would come alive and serve them faithfully.

This blue faience ushabti carries his farming implements, beard and a tripartite wig. Its magnificent inscription reads: “May the Osiris (priest) of Tius be enlightened and justified. Born of Tayderek, justified. He says: Oh! ushebtis, if I am required. The Osiris of Tius, to do all the works that must be done in the hereafter, here I am!, you will say, to break down the obstacles, to cultivate the fields, to irrigate the riverside lands and to transport the sand from west to east and vice versa. Here I am! you will say.” This magnificent inscription, in which he speaks of the justified, an expression to refer to the dead, and even of his own mother, makes him a unique example.

Egyptian linen cover for the deceased Harpakhem, Late Period-Roman Period, 664 B.C. – 200 A.D.

This linen covering belongs to a set of nine bandages from the same mummy, which, thanks to the inscriptions on these bandages, has been identified as Harpakhem. The bandages come from the same sheet made of pure linen, which provides a robust but flexible texture. The inscriptions are made with a black ink that is well preserved since the scribe did not change his brush at any time, so the bandages did not suffer the corrosive effect of too thick ink.

On this bandage number 7, a chain of epithets of the goddess Sejmet belonging to chapter 164 is written. These epithets refer to Sejmet as the snake-ureus at the top of the sun-well.

This epithet reads as follows:

“Hail, Sekhmet-Ra-Bast, head of the gods, winged, to whom the bandages ‘Ans’ have given the magic power! You, oh Goddess, who have been crowned with the diadems of the South and the North, unique sovereign of your Father, who no God submits to you, owner of the great magical power”.

Egyptian linen cover for the deceased Harpakhem, Late Period-Roman Period, 664 B.C. – 200 A.D.

This linen covering belongs to a set of nine bandages from the same mummy, which, thanks to the inscriptions on these bandages, has been identified as Harpakhem. The bandages come from the same sheet made of pure linen, which provides a robust but flexible texture. The inscriptions are made with a black ink that is well preserved since the scribe did not change his brush at any time, so the bandages did not suffer the corrosive effect of too thick ink.

In the case of bandage number 2, it has its continuation in number 3, possibly because both were originally part of a single strip of cloth that could be separated into two pieces by accident or because it was more convenient for embalmers. It is therefore appropriate to analyse the translation of these fragments together.

The inscription on both bands is a confusing and shortened version of chapter 160. This chapter contains a spell recited by the deceased on a papyrus-stemmed amulet around his neck, with which he may or may not have identified himself. It also makes direct mention of the name of the deceased, Harpakhem, and his mother, Taamun, as well as the city of Heliopolis.

The scribe reached the end of the linen band and, with little space, introduced the name of the dead man and his mother in very short calligraphy, and even had to add a small extra line to complete the text.

The spell in chapter 160 goes like this:

“Here you have a wadj talisman carved in an emerald. It protects against all attacks of Evil. Thoth gives them to those who worship him, who keep away everything that does not please the gods. I prosper if the talisman prospers; if it is not attained I am not attained; if it is unusable I will be also. Here is Thoth speaking. His words give protection to my spine.

“Behold, thou comest in peace, O Lord of Heliopolis and Pe! Shu is on his way to thee; he finds thee in Shenmoh; nshem is thy name. Thou dwellest in the strength of the mighty God… Verily, thy members shall not be hurt, for they are protected by the same Tum…”

Egyptian linen cover for the deceased Harpakhem, Late Period-Roman Period, 664 B.C. – 200 A.D.

This linen covering belongs to a set of nine bandages from the same mummy, which, thanks to the inscriptions on these bandages, has been identified as Harpakhem. The bandages come from the same sheet made of pure linen, which provides a robust but flexible texture. The inscriptions are made with a black ink that is well preserved since the scribe did not change his brush at any time, so the bandages did not suffer the corrosive effect of too thick ink.

In the case of bandage number 2, it has its continuation in number 3, possibly because both were originally part of a single strip of cloth that could be separated into two pieces by accident or because it was more convenient for embalmers. It is therefore appropriate to analyse the translation of these fragments together.

The inscription on both bands is a confusing and shortened version of chapter 160. This chapter contains a spell recited by the deceased on a papyrus-stemmed amulet around his neck, with which he may or may not have identified himself. It also makes direct mention of the name of the deceased, Harpakhem, and his mother, Taamun, as well as the city of Heliopolis.

The scribe reached the end of the linen band and, with little space, introduced the name of the dead man and his mother in very short calligraphy, and even had to add a small extra line to complete the text.

The spell in chapter 160 goes like this:

“Here you have a wadj talisman carved in an emerald. It protects against all attacks of Evil. Thoth gives them to those who worship him, who keep away everything that does not please the gods. I prosper if the talisman prospers; if it is not attained I am not attained; if it is unusable I will be also. Here is Thoth speaking. His words give protection to my spine.

“Behold, thou comest in peace, O Lord of Heliopolis and Pe! Shu is on his way to thee; he finds thee in Shenmoh; nshem is thy name. Thou dwellest in the strength of the mighty God… Verily, thy members shall not be hurt, for they are protected by the same Tum…”

Egyptian linen cover for the deceased Harpakhem, Late Period-Roman Period, 664 B.C. – 200 A.D.

This linen covering belongs to a set of nine bandages from the same mummy, which, thanks to the inscriptions on these bandages, has been identified as Harpakhem. The bandages come from the same sheet made of pure linen, which provides a robust but flexible texture. The inscriptions are made with a black ink that is well preserved since the scribe did not change his brush at any time, so the bandages did not suffer the corrosive effect of too thick ink.

In the case of this bandage number 1, the written text is strictly the title of chapter 158 whose translation is: “To fix a gold necklace”. This chapter 158 contains a short spell that the deceased must recite over a gold necklace placed around his neck on the day of the burial and which reads as follows:

“O Osiris, my Father! O Horus, my Brother! O Isis, my Mother! The bandages are removed from me, the ones that were oppressing my head and my body… My eyes begin to distinguish the beings that surround me. Before me I see the God Keb…”

This spell was to be recited on a gold necklace on which the text had been previously engraved and placed around the neck of the deceased on the day of his funeral.

Greek ceramic sculpture representing the goddess “Aphrodite”, 300-200 B.C.

From 323 B.C., with the death of Alexander the Great, the period known as the Hellenistic period began in Greece, which would dominate the entire third century B.C. It is a period where theatricality predominates, so there will be a great development of art to impact. Therefore, the Hellenistic art is characterized by the search of perfect anatomies, rich qualities, dynamism and use of lights and shadows.

The ancient Greeks, magnificent sculptors, used the female body as an icon of beauty. The goddess Aphrodite, goddess of beauty, of love, protector of fertility The Greek beauty icon equated to the goddess Venus in Ancient Rome.

The goddess is presented with a fallen cloak that leaves half of her body exposed, and with one foot resting on a square base, in a sensual and theatrical pose. This Aphrodite is without a doubt a masterful example of the sculptural ability of Ancient Greece, the hair gathered into a casual bun, her angelic face and the sinuous sculptured body are enhanced by the serenity of her more than 2000 year old colors.

Roman glass dish, 2nd-3rd century A.D.

The first and second centuries A.D. belong to the period known as High Imperial Rome, that is, the time of splendor of the Roman Empire. It is a flourishing period thanks to the arrival in power of Augustus, who brought about powerful changes in the Empire that had an impact on Roman art.

It is a dish for domestic use made of blown glass. The history of glass is more than three thousand years old, (II Millennium B.C. in Mesopotamia and Egypt). The first pieces were made by modelling on sand cores to which ornaments of various kinds were added. This was an expensive method of production and therefore reserved for the social elite of the time until the first century B.C. of blown glass, which caused a real revolution in trade and the introduction of it in the most modest social strata.

Egyptian compartmentalized limestone vessel, Late Period, 600 a.C.

This Egyptian limestone vessel is composed of two rectangular compartments and lids decorated with a beetle in black paint. It is common to find the beetle as a decorative motif in egyptian objects since it is considered as a protective amulet. The fly is a less popular decoration but also has the power of protection.

Egyptian linen cover for the deceased Harpakhem, Late Period-Roman Period, 664 B.C. – 200 A.D.

This linen covering belongs to a set of nine bandages from the same mummy, which, thanks to the inscriptions on these bandages, has been identified as Harpakhem. The bandages come from the same sheet made of pure linen, which provides a robust but flexible texture. The inscriptions are made with a black ink that is well preserved since the scribe did not change his brush at any time, so the bandages did not suffer the corrosive effect of too thick ink.
The inscriptions on the bandages are passages from the Book of the Dead, so that a correlative text is created for the bandages where there are references to chapters 158, 160, 163 and 164.

In the case of bandage number 5, it is the continuation of bandage number 4, possibly because both were originally part of a single strip of cloth which could have been separated into two pieces by accident or because it was more convenient for embalmers. The text written on this band is an excerpt from Chapter 163, which comprises a rather long spell intended to ensure the physical preservation of the deceased, general well-being and freedom of action in the afterlife.

That prayer of supplication to be freed from the monster that is collected in chapter 163 is the following:
Deliver me from the spirit of terrible face that takes over hearts and snatches away limbs!

Bronze female figure, Luristan (Iran), 1000 B.C.

The people of Luristan had a perfect command of metallurgical technology and an incredible artistic sense. The preservation of the local tradition for centuries was probably possible thanks to the survival of the funeral ritual and the beliefs that gave meaning to these bronze objects. This sculpture represents a female figure, possibly of high rank as she is wearing a crown similar to the crowns worn by the Egyptian pharaohs. She is dressed in a kind of tunic or long dress on the top of which seems to suggest a kind of necklace. The figure has a rigid and hieratic pose, a characteristic attribute of the representations of characters of high social class.

Roman amphora type Dressel 2-4 of terracotta, High Imperial Period, 1st-2nd century A.D.

The morphology of Dressel 2-4 amphoras is characterized by a thickened rim towards the outside, a long truncated cone or cylindrical neck, and a generally cylindrical body, although it sometimes has a fusiform or ovoid morphology, and rests on a solid pivot. The handles have a characteristic forked section and a right-angled profile, and rest on the shoulders, which usually have a marked hump. The forerunners of amphoras were the Greeks, although they soon spread throughout the Phoenician and Roman worlds, being used to transport liquids and food, as well as to store them. Normally they could contain at least 25 to 30 litres, their shape varying depending on whether they were carrying wine, oil, salt, cereals or other food.

Phoenician amphora of terracotta, 4th century B.C.

Amphoras are fusiform ceramic vessels with two handles and a narrow neck generally, although in some cultures they have developed in metal or other materials. They are usually finished with a point or even a long protruding tip that was used to stick them into the ground and keep them stable.

Their precursors were the Greeks, although they soon spread throughout the Phoenician and Roman world, being used to transport liquids and food, as well as to be able to store them.

Normally they could contain at least 25 to 30 litres, their form being variable depending on whether they were carrying wine, oil, salt, cereals or other food.

Greek amphora of terracotta, 4th century B.C.

Amphoras are fusiform ceramic vessels with two handles and a narrow neck generally, although in some cultures they have developed in metal or other materials. They are usually finished with a point or even a long protruding tip that was used to stick them into the ground and keep them stable.

Their precursors were the Greeks, although they soon spread throughout the Phoenician and Roman world, being used to transport liquids and food, as well as to be able to store them.

Normally they could contain at least 25 to 30 litres, their form being variable depending on whether they were carrying wine, oil, salt, cereals or other food.

Roman amphora type Dressel 2-4 of terracotta, High Imperial Period, 1st-2nd century A.D.

The morphology of Dressel 2-4 amphoras is characterized by a thickened rim towards the outside, a long truncated cone or cylindrical neck, and a generally cylindrical body, although it sometimes has a fusiform or ovoid morphology, and rests on a solid pivot. The handles have a characteristic forked section and a right-angled profile, and rest on the shoulders, which usually have a marked hump. The forerunners of amphoras were the Greeks, although they soon spread throughout the Phoenician and Roman worlds, being used to transport liquids and food, as well as to store them. Normally they could contain at least 25 to 30 litres, their shape varying depending on whether they were carrying wine, oil, salt, cereals or other food.

Phoenician amphora of terracotta, 4th century B.C.

Amphoras are fusiform ceramic vessels with two handles and a narrow neck generally, although in some cultures they have developed in metal or other materials. They are usually finished with a point or even a long protruding tip that was used to stick them into the ground and keep them stable.

Their precursors were the Greeks, although they soon spread throughout the Phoenician and Roman world, being used to transport liquids and food, as well as to be able to store them.

Normally they could contain at least 25 to 30 litres, their form being variable depending on whether they were carrying wine, oil, salt, cereals or other food.

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