Code of ethics

At Ifergan Gallery we have a strict ethical code so that buying archaeology is safe for our clients. Prior to its acquisition, we ensure that the pieces comply with the international laws of protection of the historical and cultural heritage of UNESCO. We guarantee that none of them has been stolen from excavations, architectural monuments, public institutions or private properties.

All our pieces are delivered with their corresponding Export Certificate issued by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of the Government of Spain.

In addition, to ensure the maximum satisfaction of our customers we require museum quality level.

We guarantee that the pieces we offer are as they are seen in the photographs and correspond with their description.

Authenticity

Our pieces come entirely from the most renowned auction houses around the world such as Christie's, Bonhams or Pierre Bergé, as well as from the most prestigious international galleries. Therefore, the quality and authenticity of the pieces is guaranteed, providing each with its corresponding certificate of authenticity. In addition, we work with tools such as Thermoluminescence or Carbon 14 tests to certify their age.

Returns

At Ifergan Gallery we are concerned about the satisfaction of our customers. To guarantee it, the client may return the piece within fifteen calendar days of its reception.
In addition, all our shipments are made with the appropriate packaging that guarantees reception in optimal conditions. Packages are also sent with their corresponding accident insurance.

Greek-Canosan vase in the form of a woman´s head in terracotta, 3rd century B.C.

Vase in the shape of a female head, with a seven-pointed radiant diadem and two long palm leaves placed at the sides of the neck. The vase is crowned by a standing female figure, with a diadem in her hair and dressed in a long, broad and enveloping mantle or hymthion. It has a long ribbon handle that extends vertically from the back of the statuette to the back of the head. This vase comes from Canosa di Puglia, an Italian town in the province of Barletta-Andria-Trani. This type of vessels were also used as funerary vessels.

From 323 B.C., with the death of Alexander the Great, the so-called Hellenistic period began in Greece, which would dominate the entire third century B.C. It is a period where theatricality predominates, so there will be a great development of art to impact. Therefore, the Hellenistic art is characterized by the search of perfect anatomies, rich qualities, dynamism and use of lights and shadows.

Sumerian clay brick fragment dedicated to Hammurabi, 1756-1750 B.C.

This piece is a Sumerian brick made of clay that has an inscription in its central part made with cuneiform writing. This type of brick was used for Sumerian constructions and the inscription was intended to commemorate the figure of a king or to recall some important feat.

Specifically, this inscription includes the following sentence: “Hammurabi-andoul, governor d’Eshnounna”. Hammurabi was the first king of the Babylonian Empire, whose reign lasted from 1792 to 1750 BC. He expanded his reign throughout Mesopotamia in search of fertile land and established the Akkadian language as the official language.

Hammurabi is especially recognized by the Code of Hammurabi, a compendium of laws made by cuneiform writing on a stone stele. It contains laws that deal with issues related to work, loans, income, etc. One of the main novelties of this code is the incorporation of the principle of presumption of innocence, giving the opportunity to present evidence.

Roman amphora made of terracotta with seashells, 100 A.D.

Amphorae are ceramic fusiform vessels with two handles and a narrow neck generally, although in some cultures they have developed into metal or other materials. They are usually finished with a point or even a long protruding tip that was used to nail them to the ground and keep them stable.

Their precursors were the Greeks, although they soon spread throughout the Phoenician and Roman world, being used to transport liquids and food, as well as to be able to store them.

Normally they could contain at least 25 to 30 litres, their form being variable depending on whether they were carrying wine, oil, salt, cereals or other food.

The first and second centuries A.D. belong to the period known as High Imperial Rome, that is, the time of splendour of the Roman Empire. It is a flourishing period thanks to the arrival to power of Augustus, who promoted powerful changes in the Empire that had an impact on Roman art. During this period, the aesthetics of sculpture came from the Hellenistic world and, with respect to typologies, historical relief and portraits predominated, which sought to promote the most important characters or events.

Greek ceramic sculpture representing the goddess “Aphrodite”, 300-200 B.C.

From 323 B.C., with the death of Alexander the Great, the period known as the Hellenistic period began in Greece, which would dominate the entire third century B.C. It is a period where theatricality predominates, so there will be a great development of art to impact. Therefore, the Hellenistic art is characterized by the search of perfect anatomies, rich qualities, dynamism and use of lights and shadows.

The ancient Greeks, magnificent sculptors, used the female body as an icon of beauty. The goddess Aphrodite, goddess of beauty, of love, protector of fertility The Greek beauty icon equated to the goddess Venus in Ancient Rome.

The goddess is presented with a fallen cloak that leaves half of her body exposed, and with one foot resting on a square base, in a sensual and theatrical pose. This Aphrodite is without a doubt a masterful example of the sculptural ability of Ancient Greece, the hair gathered into a casual bun, her angelic face and the sinuous sculptured body are enhanced by the serenity of her more than 2000 year old colors.

Roman glass jar with serrated edge, 200-300 A.D.

It is a large bottle made of greenish brown glass. It has a long conical body with serrated decoration and a long, thin neck ending in a flared edge.
This type of flask, in the shape of a vase, with a double handle, is intended to contain ointments or perfumes, an exquisite and select content. It is really a piece with a magnificent typology and style, one of the best examples of Roman glass development.
A product with an undeniable appeal, destined for the wealthiest and most select families of Ancient Rome. Glass was a very expensive material due to its complicated composition and difficult manufacturing process.

Egyptian canopic limestone jar of Amset, Late Period, 664-332 B.C.

It is a canopic jar made of alabaster whose lid represents the head of Amset, the woman. The canopic jars were the containers that were placed in the tomb and were used to contain the entrails of the deceased when he was mummified. It was a set of four vessels whose lids represented the four sons of Horus: Kebeshenuef (falcon) for the intestines; Hapi (baboon) for the lungs; Amset (woman) for the liver; and Duamutef (jackal) for the stomach.
The ancient Egyptians believed in eternal life and death was considered the beginning of a new existence. The belief that the souls of the dead returned to the body led to the creation of a series of customs and rituals to preserve the body. The process began after death with embalming where the process of mummification took place. The body was cleaned and the internal organs were removed and preserved for burial with the deceased.
The body was then dried with natron, a process in which the organs were also dried. When the body was finally dry and the organs preserved, they were cleaned and bandaged, applying ointments and performing magic rituals.

Phoenician terracotta jug with handle decorated with an animal head, 8th century B.C.

This stylized jug is a very refined piece of terracotta painted in red with a long ribbed neck at its base and three decorative protrusions. It has an elongated handle, very beautifully decorated on top with a horse head probably representing the Hippocampus, a mythological Phoenician animal with the upper half in the shape of a winged horse body and the lower half in the form of a fish tail.

These jugs were used to take the wine out of the craters, where it had been watered down before being served. The Phoenicians taught the Greeks the knowledge of wine production and not only traded with wine produced in Canaan, but also developed markets for wines produced in colonies and ports throughout the Mediterranean.

The Phoenician civilization is chronologically situated between 1200 and 330 BC, located in the narrow strip of the Mediterranean between Syria and Palestine. The Phoenicians maintained contacts with all the states and empires in their territorial environment, which is why it was a coveted place as a strategic and commercial enclave. In addition, its geographical position meant that it had an important maritime vocation.

Egyptian bronze figure representing “Isis” and “Horus”, Late Period, 26th-30th dinasty, 664-525 B.C.

This statuette represents the goddess Isis nursing the god Horus. Isis is the Egyptian mother goddess, who recovered the pieces into which the body of her brother Osiris had been divided and with him she managed to conceive her son Horus. Therefore, it is common to find the representation of both, with the goddess acting as a mother.
The goddess appears seated, dressed in a long and tight garment and wearing a tripartite wig with horns. Isis holds her right hand on her chest and carries the child Horus sitting on her lap to her left. It would be a votive figure made to be given as offerings in the temples.

Cypriot sculpture of a female stone head, 700 B.C.

This head fragment is Greek-Cypriot in style. It probably belonged to a larger sculpture. It is a female face with very characteristic features such as almond shaped eyes, large nose and thick lips. It has a hairstyle with a side ponytail that collects the curly hair.

Due to the archaic style of its features and the shape of its carving, this sculpture belongs to a first group of figures made early in the 8th century BC.

The unique geographical position of the island of Cyprus, situated in the centre of the eastern Mediterranean, makes it a natural point of connection between the cultures of the three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. Furthermore, due to the continuous dominations that have taken place on the island, a dense network of commercial and cultural relations was created between the different civilizations that exerted their influence on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean.

Limestone sculpture of priest’s head, Palmira, 2nd – 3rd century A.D.

This funerary bust is a superlative example of Palmira’s art and radiates the nobility of a man of great esteem. From its classical aesthetics, it can be inferred that the priest belonged to the Hellenic religious tradition. With his square chin and exquisite facial symmetry, the handsome priest personifies the idealized proportions of the Greeks. It has a high cylindrical headdress with two vertical grooves, a face with the nose crooked downwards, a square chin and prominent ears, well-defined arched eyebrows and eyes with thick eyelids.

On the eastern periphery of the Roman Empire, the ancient city of Palmira stood as a gateway linking the western world with the luxuries of the East. For the ancient inhabitants of this arid kingdom, Palmira was known simply as the Bride of the Desert, and for centuries intrepid merchants passed through this oasis in search of relief from the desert sun. The Hebrew Bible attributes the city to King Solomon, although ancient Marian records mention Palmira of the second millennium BC. Under the mercurial reign of the Seleucids, the city experienced the pleasures of Hellenic civilization, which continued 300 years later when in the 1st century AD Tiberius incorporated Syria into the Roman Empire. From the Romans the city passed to Byzantium before falling into the armies of Muhammad and being abandoned around 800 A.D. At its height, Palmira was an elegant symbol of imperial greatness. Trade brought wealth, power and splendour to this desert city, transforming Palmira into a limestone metropolis that has bequeathed a rich and abundant source of archaeological remains reflecting the city’s long imperial history.

The inhabitants of Palmira are famous for the construction of colossal funerary monuments built above and below the desert floor. The funerary compartments were sealed with limestone slabs decorated with magnificent busts in high relief representing the soul of the deceased.

 

Anatolian marble Kusura idol , 3rd millennium B.C.

Anatolian idols are so named because they were found in ancient Anatolia, which would correspond to present-day Turkey. Specifically this amulet is called Kusura typology, which are those whose shapes of the body and head are rounded. They are considered esteatopigias because they highlight the hips in a way that is associated with fertility. These idols could have a ritual function, since the sculptures were considered charged with a magic that made it possible to make rituals with them, in this case associated with reproduction and fertility. These idols will later influence avant-garde painters and sculptors such as Picasso, who will stop paying attention to figuration and nature and move on to purer and simpler forms, achieving, by not showing us something simple to discern, the transmission of their own experience.

Roman marble head of a satyr, 100 A.D.

This Roman head is a representation of a satyr. The representation of the face belongs to a young man with strong features and slightly separated lips showing his teeth, possibly as a representation of a mocking attitude. He has abundant curly hair on which is placed a crown of superimposed ivy leaves, joined at the back by a strap.

The Roman satyr was like a goat from the waist down, with the trunk and head of a man complete with horns. In classical mythology, Silenus was the head of the satyrs, who were rebellious but cowardly creatures, undisciplined followers of the “god Bacchus of wine and joy” dancing and playing the pipes while enjoying the grape harvest.

Due to the historical stage in which it is located, the representation of this type of characters is not strange since there were abundant images of this type of mythological characters.

The first and second centuries A.D. belong to the period known as High Imperial Rome, that is, the era of splendour of the Roman Empire. It is a flourishing period thanks to the arrival to power of Augustus, who promoted powerful changes in the Empire that had an impact on Roman art. During this period, the aesthetics of sculpture came from the Hellenistic world and, with respect to typologies, historical relief and portraits predominated, which sought to promote the most important characters or events.

Greek polychrome terracotta amphora, 11th-8th century B.C.

Amphora with annular base, pyriform body, wide neck, rounded lip and U-shaped bilateral handles. Classic Cypriot geometric decoration in ochre tones. The patterns comprise wide, narrow bands that envelop the surface. This magnificent vessel is part of one of the most recognized and decorative artistic styles from all over the ancient world. The decoration of this amphora follows the Cypriot patterns because the horizontal lines and bands would have been made with a brush kept on the piece while it turns on the lathe. Amphorae are fusiform ceramic vessels with two handles and the narrowest neck generally, although in some cultures they have been developed in metal or other materials. They being used to transport liquids and food, as well as yo store them. They could contain al least 25 to 30 liters, its shape being variable depending on whether it carried wine, oil, salting, cereals or other food.

Roman green glass amphora, 300 A.D.

This greenish coloured vessel has one of these unique specimens due to its globular body shape with a cylindrical scolled neck, rounded mouth and circular base. It has four handles of a darker colour than the body, with a sinuous shape that joins the body to the mouth.
With a versatility like no other material known in Roman times, the abundant availability, lightness and ease of use of glass, allowed the imitation of a wide range of other materials, especially precious metals. On the other hand, the ancients certainly knew that glass is a chemically neutral substance, which makes it particularly suitable for the storage of cosmetics or pharmaceuticals, as well as food and liquids.

The period of time between the third and fifth centuries is known as the end of Lower Imperial Rome, a moment that corresponds to the mandate of Diocletian with which the decline of the Empire began. When Rome seems to have reached its peak, the Hellenistic tradition begins to decline. There is a deterioration of the institutions, a fall in the economy and constant attacks by the barbarian peoples, facts that will be reflected in the art.

Egyptian Faience ushabti of Tius, Saite Period, 26th Dynasty, 664-525 BC

The ushabtis are small mummified figures representing the deceased himself, whose name means “those who respond” since they would perform those jobs that were ordered by their lord in the afterlife

The ushabtis arise in the Middle Empire, at the beginning they were made in persea wood.  Its rapid popularization caused that they began to be made in series, by means of other simpler and less manual techniques that allowed to cover the demand. In some tombs you could find up to 365 for the day and 365 for the night, so that their lord, the deceased, would not lack help for all eternity. These ushabtis could be arranged in boxes or even one representing them all. These boxes became very common as they reinforced the magical power of the servants.

The ancient Egyptians believed in the magic of sculptures and words, that is why for them these magic figures would accompany them to their eternal life and once there they would come alive and serve them faithfully.

This ushabti belongs to a man called Tius who carries his farming implements and a basket on his shoulder, and the detail of his wig and beard makes his face tender and warm. The fineness of the modeling, as well as the inscriptions arranged around the figure, which stand out beautifully over the curious whitish faience, make this figure a unique item of ancient Egypt.

Egyptian canopus limestone glass of Duamutef, Late Period, 664-332 B.C.

It is a canopic jar made of alabaster whose lid represents the head of Duamtef, the jackal. The canopic jars were the containers that were placed in the tomb and were used to contain the entrails of the deceased when he was mummified. It was a set of four vessels whose lids represented the four sons of Horus: Kebeshenuef (falcon) for the intestines; Hapi (baboon) for the lungs; Amset (woman) for the liver; and Duamutef (jackal) for the stomach.

The ancient Egyptians believed in eternal life and death was considered the beginning of a new existence. The belief that the souls of the dead returned to the body led to the creation of a series of customs and rituals to preserve the body.  The process began after death with embalming where the process of mummification took place. The body was cleaned and the internal organs were removed and preserved for burial with the deceased.

The body was then dried with natron, a process in which the organs were also dried. When the body was finally dry and the organs preserved, they were cleaned and bandaged, applying ointments and performing magic rituals.

Roman limestone funerary relief representing a marriage, 3rd century A.D.

The ancient Romans were great portraits, portrayed in niches and even in funerary masks. This relief is framed in a niche-shaped frame in which we find a Roman couple, dressed in their festive shawls, in a very chosen way. The sweetness of the portrait for the beyond makes this piece a unique example of this type of representation.

The period of time between the third and fifth centuries is known as the end of Lower Imperial Rome, a moment that corresponds to the mandate of Diocletian with which the decline of the Empire began. When Rome seems to have reached its peak, the Hellenistic tradition begins to decline. There is a deterioration of the institutions, a fall in the economy and constant attacks from the barbarian peoples, facts that will be reflected in the artistic scene.

In the field of sculpture there was also a decline in technique, moving away from the realism of previous periods and giving rise to circumstances such as disproportion or loss of detail. The fundamental factor in these circumstances is that the Empire is going through a moment in which it is not interested in what is seen but in what is to be transmitted, in other words, the concept or idea is more important.

Fragment of Egyptian linen cardboard, Ptolemaic Period, 305-30 B.C.

The ancient Egyptians had a wide belief in the funerary world and the afterlife, which is why mummification systems and broad theological beliefs occur.
This set would be placed on top of the mummy, belonging to a larger carton. Without any doubt a very chosen and luxurious set that must have belonged to someone with a high purchasing power.
The upper part resembles a ritual necklace, with the goddess Isis and two Horus on the sides. The lower part represents the goddess with open, winged arms with the sun on her head.

Fragment of Egyptian linen cardboard, Ptolemaic Period, 305-30 B.C.

The ancient Egyptians had a wide belief in the funerary world and the afterlife, which is why mummification systems and broad theological beliefs occur.
This set would be placed on top of the mummy, belonging to a larger carton. Without any doubt a very chosen and luxurious set that must have belonged to someone with a high purchasing power.
The upper part resembles a ritual necklace, with the goddess Isis and two Horus on the sides. The lower part represents the goddess with open, winged arms with the sun on her head.

Egyptian faience ushabti for “Tius”, Late Period, 27th-30th dinasty, 525-341 B.C.

The ushabtis are small mummified figures representing the deceased himself, whose name means “those who respond” since they would perform those jobs that were ordered by their lord in the afterlife

The ushabtis arise in the Middle Empire, at the beginning they were made in persea wood.  Its rapid popularization caused that they began to be made in series, by means of other simpler and less manual techniques that allowed to cover the demand. In some tombs you could find up to 365 for the day and 365 for the night, so that their lord, the deceased, would not lack help for all eternity. These ushabtis could be arranged in boxes or even one representing them all. These boxes became very common as they reinforced the magical power of the servants.

The ancient Egyptians believed in the magic of sculptures and words, that is why for them these magic figures would accompany them to their eternal life and once there they would come alive and serve them faithfully.

This blue faience ushabti carries his farming implements, beard and a tripartite wig. Its magnificent inscription reads: “May the Osiris (priest) of Tius be enlightened and justified. Born of Tayderek, justified. He says: Oh! ushebtis, if I am required. The Osiris of Tius, to do all the works that must be done in the hereafter, here I am!, you will say, to break down the obstacles, to cultivate the fields, to irrigate the riverside lands and to transport the sand from west to east and vice versa. Here I am! you will say.” This magnificent inscription, in which he speaks of the justified, an expression to refer to the dead, and even of his own mother, makes him a unique example.

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