Babylonian Stone Kudurru of Nebuchadnezzar I, Second Dynasty of Isin, 1126-1105 B.C.

The kudurru, or boundary stone, was placed in the temple to record land concessions given by the king, which served to prevent the agreement from being subsequently undone. Most kudurrus date back to the end of the Casita era but continued to be produced until the beginning of the first millennium BC. At the top of the piece are three astral symbols in relief: a crescent moon for the god of the moon, Sin; a solar disk for the god of the sun, Shamash; and a disk for Ishtar, the planet Venus. Under these, there is a stylized representation of six temples, each crowned with a symbol, the two on the left have crowns with horns alluding to Anu, god of the heavens and Enlil, god of air, wind and storms; the third with a round object alluding to the Goddess Mother Ninhursah. The fourth with an animal head representing Ea, god of underground waters; the fifth with a shovel, symbol of the god Marduk, god of the city of Babylon and the sixth only partially preserved. In the second register is Gula, goddess of medicine, seated to the left on a throne resting on a dog; Nusku god of fire and light which is represented with a lamp in front of his face. Then the god of storms Adad, in profile with one foot resting on a bull and an arm raised and the other at rest, then the god casita Shuqamuna which has a bird in front of his face. It is followed by a scorpion below on the right, symbol of the goddess of love Ishara and a walking bird symbol of Pap-sukkal, the vizier of the gods. The lower register is partially preserved and shows a lion on the right side with its head turned to the side; at the end of this register, an undulating snake, symbol of the groundwater known as Irhan. The back of this kudurru retains three columns of Babylonian cuneiform script that narrate: The donation The donation in exchange for horses from the casita king Marduk-apla-iddina I (1166-1154) to Adad-zera-subsi, merchant, son of Adad-risa. The amount of 300 sutus (81 hectares) of land in the province of Bit, Sin-seme and 300 sutus of land in the province of Bit, Sin-Asared. A total of 600 sutus (162 hectares) measured and permanently established for Adad-sera-subsi, the trader. The governor of Bit-Sin-Seme and the governor of Bit-Sin-Asared claimed the land and expropriated it. Appeal to Nebuchadnezzar I The appeal to Nebuchadnezzar I (1126-1103 A.D.) and his donation to Adad-zerar-subsi son, made Musallim-Marduk the son of Adad-zera-subsi, appeal to Nebuchadnezzar I. The king of the universe, respected the cities of Kar-Marduk and Kar-Sarpenitu, gave him 300 sutu of additional land totaling 900 sutus (243 hectares). The king sent Sapiku, son of Usi-ana-nurisa, son of Adrad-Ea who measured the land and established it permanently for Musallim-Marduk and his heir, Altammar-Adad. Witnesses Kabtija ruler of Nammar, Marduk-nadin-sumi chariot warrior of the land of Nammar and Gula-suma-iddina herald of the land of Namar were there. Protection against future offenses Whenever in the future you are a mayor, a ruler, a provincial lord, a governor or anyone who would like to stand up and make a claim for this land, let someone claim this land, take this land, or let someone take it, who would say "This land is not a gift from the king! To this man, shall An and Enlil and Ea, the great gods of heaven and earth curse. Adad, the chief of the inspectors of the channels of heaven and earth, shall close his channel, his god shall curse him, his goddess shall look upon him with hostility, his king shall do likewise. The name of the kudurru The name of this kudurru is: "Ninurta, established this kudurru forever!"


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