Egyptian ceremonial marble mace head, Predynastic Period, 3000 B.C.

The historical period known as the time of Naqada I and Naqada II (approx. 3900-3400 B.C.) corresponds to a pre-dynastic phase of Ancient Egypt, a historical moment from which palettes, maces and commemorative elements have been found that allude to the moments of unification of Egypt and to certain rituals and festivities that were later important in Egyptian historical times. This ceremonial mace head is shaped like a pear and a hole passes through it, through which a wooden or metal shaft would be introduced to carry it and use it. These maces were used by the pharaohs or high dignitaries to strike the enemies, but they were not used in battles but in particular infantry combats or in public humiliation scenarios. It began to be used when the use of the disc mace was abandoned during Naqada II, giving way to a generalization of its use from Naqada III. At the end of the 19th century, archaeological surveys were carried out in Hieracómpolis (now Kom el-Ahmar), the ancient capital of Upper Egypt in pre-dynastic times, resulting in numerous offerings and objects of worship of the time, including ceremonial maces.


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